Date : 30/09/2019
Qualification : 3rd place - ESA Member States
Country : France
Location : Clichy, Hauts de Seine
2.1.a. You are about to land on the Moon. You have to make some decisions about the location of your settlement. Where would you locate your shelter on the Moon’s surface? Close to the Lunar Poles 2.1.b. Explain your choice from question 2.1. We would place our shelter at lunar poles, more precisely at the south pole. 1. There is a considerable and abundant stocks of ice. 2. On this region of the Moon that’s almost permanently sunlight. The longest continuous periods of darkness were only 3 to 5 days. With the sunlight we can have energy for our needs. 3. At the south pole the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole. The permanently shadowed places contain ice, minerals, vital resources for future explorers and a fossil record of the early Solar System. 4.At the south pole the temperature is better, from -50 °C to 0°C. 5. The lunar south pole would be an ideal place to project radio signals and the astronauts may be able to use radio waves. 2.2.a. Where would you build the shelter: on the surface or underground? Underground 2.2.b. Explain your choice to question 2.2. Our shelter is build underground, inside lava lunar tubes. The shelter is fixed on drumsticks and can be raised to the surface or lowered completely underground and covered by a black tarpaulin. In this way the inhabitants can control completely the duration of exposure to the sun of their farm and can create an artificial day / night balance. 1. An underground shelter protects against meteorites and radiations. At the surface there are tiny space rocks or micrometeorites that fall. 2. Underground,at the south pole, the average temperature , night and day, is around −20 °C and humans could install ordinary heaters. 3. Underground you can sleep well because there is not much light. 4. The lava tube reduce the risk of air leakage, because the shelter is fully sealed from the outside except for a few exits to the surface. 5. The lunar lava tubes have proven themselves as a reliable structure, having withstood the test of time for billions of years. 6. Because of the structure of the lunar soil, it is very difficult to dig. Several connected lava tubes make it possible to fix a shelter, underground without being necessary to dig. 3.1. What will be the size of your Moon Camp? Our shelter will measure 130.90 m2. Astronauts need enough space, but not too big, to work well and in good condition. The shelter has four levels. At the top is the farm and the gym.Under the house are two pillars with a pump that allow to rise to the surface or lower the shelter underground. The shelter has two orange elevators. The first elevator starts from the airlock of the entrance (at the surface) and goes to the entrace of the house. The second elevator goes to all floors of the house. In our shelter there are no corridors. Corridors are lost spaces that are not used much and consume a lot of heating and oxygen. To separate the spaces, instead of the corridors, we have structured the house on several floors. Next to the house, on the surface, there is a black tarpaulin that can cover the roof of the house to make “night” for the plants. There is a garage with rovers and one mobile laboratory. There are solar panels and a rocket. The camp has also a water and energy production plant, a recycling plant, and a water storage space. Our moon camp is full of colour because astronauts need colours to feel good, to feel home. 3.2.a. How many people will your Moon Camp accommodate? 3 – 4 astronauts 3.2.b. Explain your choice to question 3.2. Our shelter will welcome 3 to 4 astronauts. 3-4 people is more economical than 7-10 people because there will be less people to feed and therefore more resources. 3 -4 people can help each other and they will not feel alone. We need several people for several tasks. There will be a doctor, an engineer geologist, a biologist, and a mechanical engineer. 3.3.a. Which local Moon resources would you use? •Water ice •Regolith (Lunar soil) •Sunlight •Other 3.3.b. Explain your choice to question 3.3. We would use water ice, regolith, sunlight, meteorites, lava tube, craters. 1. ICE . Ice we can melt it to get water. Ice deposits can be converted to oxygen and rocket fuel through a process called electrolysis. Ice contain also mineral that astronauts can use. 2. Regolith. We will use regolith to build the camp. Also there is oxygen in the regolith. Regolith contains many elements that we can use for the camp needs. 3. Sunlight. We will use the sunlight to transform it with the solar panels into electricity. We need sunlight for our plants. Sunlight is very important for the mental health and well-being of astronauts. 4. Lava tube. We will use volcanic lava tubes to fix our shelter inside.Lava tubes proven themselves as a reliable structure, and they can provide protection against meteorite impacts, high-energy ultra-violet radiation and energetic particles, and extreme diurnal temperature variations. 5 Craters. The lunar south pole craters are unique. Because the sunlight does not reach the bottom, these craters are cold traps that contain a fossil record of the early Solar System. 6 Meteorites. Certain meteorites contain small amounts of organic matter. We can use them to improuve the soil of our farm. 3.4. Explain how you plan to build your project on the Moon. You should include information about the materials and building techniques you are planning to use. Highlight the unique features of your design. Step 1. Rovers will study the lunar craters to find the best lava tubes for our shelter. Step 2. The rovers will will sort and bring to the base the necessary regolith, meteorites and ice. Step 3. A special printer will manufacture the walls and the objects of the interior. Another printer will make special windows to cover each floor. To manufacture these “glasses” we will use the materials and technology similar to those that is used to make protective helmets for extravehicular missions of astronauts or for seven-window observatory CUPOLA. A rover will inflate a dome that will be covered with regolith, in the dome there will be an elevator that will lead to the shelter that will be underground. Step 4. The rovers will make the first supplies of water and oxygen. The robots will start the air, water, and light systems needed for the farm. The robots will start also the recycling system integrated in the ceilings of the house. Step 5 . Before the landing of astronauts robots will plant plants in the farm and will prepare the first harvest. 3.5. Describe and explain the design of the entrance to your Moon Camp. The entrance will have three compartments and will be based on airlock systems. At the surface the astronauts will have a dome made with regolith. Inside there will be two doors facing each other. We will open the first door with that will lead us to the second door. Once the first door is closed we can open the second door that where is a small room and an elevator. The elevator will take us to the underground shelter. 3.6. Explain how the Moon Camp provides protection for the astronauts. On the Moon the astronauts should face physical and mental dangers. The physical dangers are created by: : – meteorite rain – space radiation – lack of oxygen, lack of water and food – lunar dust – low gravity – vacuum – extreme temperatures. The dangers for mental health are : isolation – sharing a small space with a few fellow crew members – be far away from friends and family – absence of night and day balance – lack of colours, light. Since the shelter is underground it protects astronauts from many dangers of the Moon : meteorite rain and micrometeorites, space radiation. The shelter has integrated into the ceilings a system that continuously monitors and ensures the quality of the air, temperature and humidity that astronauts need. The system also ensures the recycling of water and oxygen. The system removes the CO2 from the shelter to the farm and bring O2 from the farms to the rooms. The “windows” of the farm let the light go inside but do not allow solar radiation to penetrate. The black roof can be removed in order to obtain a good balance dark/ light, and allows to artificially create a succession of days and nights. The windows also permet to see around and diminish the sensation of being locked in a cage. To get out, the astronauts have pressurised rovers with oxygen. In the house there are also protective suits to go outside. Different gravity affects a person’s hand-eye coordination, balance, movement and sense of space. It also affects the muscles, bones and heart. Astronauts will have a sports area that will allow them to play sports, use their muscles and stay healthy. In order not to feel alone or depressed, astronauts will be able to communicate with their families and will have a relaxing space with games. The shelter will be colourful. 3.7. Describe the location and arrangements of the sleeping and working areas. At the top of the shelter we have the farm with a sports area so that astronauts stay in shape. At next floor there is a working room in which there is a laboratory space and a communication space. On the next floor there are 4 bedrooms one for each astronaut, 1 bathroom, 2 toilets and 1 small relaxation area. On the lowest floor is a technical room, the entrance, the kitchen and the dining room. The interior is very colourful. The parts of sleep in blue because the blue is relaxing and reminds the Earth. We also used green, yellow and red because these colours promote concentration and joy. 4.1. Describe what will be the power source for the shelter. Next to the shelter there are many solar panels which converts sunlight in electricity.In the second phase of exploration, an atomic power plant can be built. We are also looking for how to use the force released by the fall of the meteorites. Ice deposits can be converted to rocket fuel. 4.2. Describe where the water will come from. There will be a rover coming out and bringing ice and melting it. The rover will work with solar panels. There will be barrels to keep the water longer. A few litres of water will be brought from the Earth. All the water will be recycled by an integrated system in the ceilings of the house. 4.3. Describe what will be the food source. The astronauts will bring dehydrated food with them, it is food that has been dried beforehand, it is enough to add water and the food becomes edible. They will also eat the vegetables grown in the garden. They can also eat starchy foods like rice, pasta, etc … In the second phase of exploration, astronauts can grow insects. Insects contain a lot of protein and some insects can help to recycle organic material. 5.1. What would you like to study on the Moon? 1. We would like to study how to bring tourists to spend holidays on the Moon. We would also like to study how we can build houses for the inhabitants to live on the Moon. 2. We would like to observe how human body work on the Moon. We can create hospitals for diseases that we can not treat on Earth but that can be treated on the Moon because there is another gravitation. 3. We would also like to study how we can use the force of the meteorites and micrometeorites that fall on the surface of the Moon. We would also want to study the meteorites because it can help us understand our universe. 4. We would like to study how to improve an insect farm. 5. We would like to study the volcanoes that are on the surface of the Moon. We would like to see if we can bring to life that volcanoes in order the make warmer the pole of the Moon. 6. We are thinking of creating a terminal for the rockets that will go to Mars and other planets. we want to build a rocket factory and a factory to get fuel. 7. We will want to study how to transport from the Moon to the Earth interesting materials. Projects are created by the teams and they take the full responsibility of the shared content.