Choose your space location

Decide where your habitat is going to be located

Human space exploration is no mean feat. Human beings are not adapted to the harsh conditions of space.

Every time that astronauts and spacecraft leave the thin protective layer of the Earth atmosphere they are exposed to:

Extreme temperatures

In space, temperatures range from hundreds and even thousands of degrees Celsius to close to absolute zero

High-energy radiation

Far away from Earth’s magnetosphere astronauts may be at significant risk for radiation sickness

Debris and micrometeorites impacts

On Earth we only need to worry about large meteorites impacts. In space even the smallest piece of debris can have a catastrophic impact.

Vacuum of space

To survive in space, astronauts need an environment that recreates Earth’s atmosphere.

Space environments

The Moon is our closest neighbour and a natural target for setting up a human base. The Moon is a treasure trove of Solar System history and it has great scientific potential for looking further afield such as constructing a radio telescope on the far side, offering views of our Universe protected from the constant radio emissions from Earth.

Set your base on the Moon, or go deeper into the Solar System.



Surface temperature: -233°C to 123°C

Atmospheric pressure: 10-7 Pa

Atmosphere composition: Tenuous atmosphere including: helium, argon, sodium, hydrogen

Radiation: High

Magnetic field?: No

Acceleration of gravity: 1.6 ms-2

Extra information: Liquid water cannot exist on the Moon. But it is thought that water ice could be found in permanently shadowed craters at the Moon’s poles, and could be trapped beneath its surface.




Surface temperature: -153°C to 20°C

Atmospheric pressure: 600 Pa

Atmosphere composition: Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon

Radiation: High

Magnetic field?: No

Acceleration of gravity: 3.7 ms-2

Extra information: Has water ice at the poles and at the south polar region a pond of liquid water has been detected under layers of ice and dust.



Surface temperature: -180°C to 430°C

Atmospheric pressure: 10-7 Pa

Atmosphere composition: Tenuous atmosphere inclu- ding: hydrogen, helium, oxygen, water vapour

Radiation: High

Magnetic field?: Yes

Acceleration of gravity: 3.7 ms-2

Extra information: Despite the high temperatures the planet endures during the daytime, it might be cold enough deep inside craters at its poles for water ice to be present.



Surface temperature: 470°C

Atmospheric pressure: 9.3 MPa

Atmosphere composition: Carbon dioxide, nitrogen

Radiation: Low

Magnetic field?: No

Acceleration of gravity: 8.87 ms-2

Extra information: Has a toxic and heavy atmosphere almost entirely made up of carbon dioxide. A thick layer of cloud surrounds the planet, of which the upper part consists mostly of tiny sulphuric acid droplets. At the surface, the atmospheric pressure of Venus is more than 90 times greater than the Earth’s.


Titan - Saturn's moon

Surface temperature: -179°C

Atmospheric pressure: 146.7 Pa

Atmosphere composition: Nitrogen, methane

Radiation: Low

Magnetic field?: No

Acceleration of gravity: 1.35 ms-2

Extra information: Has clouds, rain, rivers, lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbons, such as methane and ethane.


Enceladus - Saturn's moon

Surface temperature: -201°C

Atmospheric pressure:

Atmosphere composition:

Radiation: High

Magnetic field?: No

Acceleration of gravity: 0.113 ms-2

Extra information: Thought to have hydrothermal vents that sprew out mineral-rich water into an ocean that lies beneath its icy surface.

Jupiter's moons

Io, Europa, Callisto and Ganymede - Jupiter's largest moons

This ‘family portrait’ shows a composite of images of Jupiter, including it’s Great Red Spot, and its four largest moons. From top to bottom, the moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Europa is almost the same size as Earth’s moon, while Ganymede, the largest moon in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercury.

While Io is a volcanically active world, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are icy, and may have oceans of liquid water under their crusts. Europa in particular may even harbour a habitable environment.

Surface temperature: -223°C to -108°C

Atmosphere composition: Io has a thin sulfur dioxide atmosphere, Callisto has a very thin carbon dioxide atmosphere, both Europa and Ganymede have tenuous oxygen atmospheres.

Radiation: High

Magnetic field?: Ganymede is the only moon in the Solar System with a magnetic field

Acceleration of gravity: 1.2 to 1.8 ms-2

Space vehicles

Examples of space vehicles used to transport astronauts and cargo to Low Earth Orbit and the Moon.



Orion is NASA’s next spacecraft to send humans into deep space. It is designed to send astronauts farther into space than ever before, beyond the Moon and to asteroids. ESA has designed and is overseeing the development of the European Service Module (ESM), the part of the spacecraft that supplies air, electricity and propulsion.

Play Video

Five Automated Transfer Vehicles delivered more than 31 500 kg of supplies over the course of their missions to the International Space Station from 2008 to 2015. They boosted the Station to raise its orbit numerous times and similarly moved it out of the way of space debris.

Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)


The Apollo spacecraft carried the first people to the Moon over 50 years ago. A complete lunar landing mission configuration was composed of the Apollo Command and Service Modules, plus a Lunar Module. The Command Module housed the crew and Service Module provided the propulsion for the lunar orbit insertion and trans-Earth burn for the return to Earth.

Continue your project

Now that you have learnt about the different possible locations in the Solar System, investigate your design tools and techniques. 

Start your project
Plan your space habitat with your team and submit your project
Choose your design tools and techniques
Decide how you would like to create your project

Learn more about the space environment

Prepare your students for their Moon Camp project with our useful educational resources. You can find 3D design tutorials for Tinkercad and Fusion 360, curricular classroom resources covering a wide range of STEM topics, videos with space experts, interesting moon animations and much more!

Resources are available in multiple languages, as well as closed captions for videos. 

Visit the Resources page to find out more.

Classroom Resources
PHOTO DATE:  03-18-22
LOCATION:  Bldg. 8, Room 183 - Photo Studio
SUBJECT:  Photograph official astronaut portrait of ESA astronaut Andreas Mogensen in EMU.
Meet the Experts

Moon Camp Challenge Project Galleries 2022- 2023

Get inspired with these amazing projects designed by teams from all over the world during last year’s edition.


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